Glossary of Training Terms

This glossary provides a series of definitions and explanations to support the ICTI virtual learning environment.

Definitions may change by consensus as time goes on.

It is managed by the facilitators of the Africa Media Trainers' Network and ICTI Administrators.

We welcome suggestions for changes and additions.
Browse the glossary using this index

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This concept is an essential element in our thinking. We do not intend to exclude competent trainers simply because they have not been able to attain certain formal qualifications. A recognised trainer is simply one that is accepted as competent based on the work they are doing and the outcomes they achieve in that training activity. Where a trainer is not known, the educational qualifications detailed provide a means of evaluating their competence in training others.

Trainers whose skills are recognised are considered competent to train crafts skills.

In Training of Trainers, ICTI is responsible for maintaining the integrity of the content and quality of training and therefore, recognises trainers at this level.


reflective practice

Reflective practice has become a popular and key theme in education and professional learning. Key ideas in the field were developed by Dewey (How We Think 1910; 1933). His thinking still runs through the work of key writers such as David Boud et al (1985) and Donald Schön (1983; 1987).

Schön has been particularly influential developing his ideas of reflection on action (taking time to reflect about critical incidents in a professional person's practice after the event) and reflection in action (reflection undertaken whilst the incident is occurring).

See also critical incident



We make a distinction between training skills, whether obtained formally or informally, and craft skills.

In training skills we are concerned with the trainer's ability to train, their understanding of how adults learn and their commitment to collaborative learning.

In craft skills we are concerned with their ability to do the task that their training is tackling. Eg: A journalist trains others in journalism (craft skills) using their abilities as a trainer (training skills).


SMART - acronym often used by trainers to describe the nature of objectives S=Specific
T=Time Defined

subject matter expert

The concept of a Subject Matter Expert (SME) is well known in training and education.

It is generally recognised that a trainer/educator may be competent to train ie knows the necessary skills and has the ability to deliver training in competent/professional manner.  That same trainer may not have the necessary knwoledge in the subject to effectively facilitate learning in the specific field.

A subject matter expert is just that. Jim Fraser of Fraser Associates has suggested that there are additional degrees of expertise and has offered the definitions of "Subject matter resources (SMR's); subject matter experts (SME's) and subject matter masters. Someone could be one of the above in training, in a specialized content area or both. The highest order of our tradecraft isn't in our ability to do it, it is in the ability to teach others to do properly."



Unrecognised training skills are held by those practitioners who have begun to quietly pass their skills onto others and who have no formal training qualification. They are not recognised as competent trainers.

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